The science of ketamine

section 01

An introduction [H2]

This is a sub-headline. Keep it short [H3]

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in our brain and central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in virtually every major excitatory brain function. While excitatory has a very specific meaning in neuroscience, in general terms, an excitatory neurotransmitter increases the likelihood that the neuron it acts upon will have an action potential (also called a nerve impulse).1 When an action potential occurs the nerve is said to fire, with fire, in this case, being somewhat akin to the completion of an electric circuit that occurs when a light switch is turned on. The result of neurons firing is that a message can be spread throughout the neural circuit. It is estimated that well over half of all synapses in the brain release glutamate, making it the dominant neurotransmitter used for neural circuit communication.

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

An even smaller sub-headline [H4]

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

section 02

Early uses & findings [H2]

This is a sub-headline. Keep it short [H3]

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in our brain and central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in virtually every major excitatory brain function. While excitatory has a very specific meaning in neuroscience, in general terms, an excitatory neurotransmitter increases the likelihood that the neuron it acts upon will have an action potential (also called a nerve impulse).1 When an action potential occurs the nerve is said to fire, with fire, in this case, being somewhat akin to the completion of an electric circuit that occurs when a light switch is turned on. The result of neurons firing is that a message can be spread throughout the neural circuit. It is estimated that well over half of all synapses in the brain release glutamate, making it the dominant neurotransmitter used for neural circuit communication.

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

An even smaller sub-headline [H4]

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

section 03

What is it made of? Two lines of text for this one

This is a sub-headline. Keep it short [H3]

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in our brain and central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in virtually every major excitatory brain function. While excitatory has a very specific meaning in neuroscience, in general terms, an excitatory neurotransmitter increases the likelihood that the neuron it acts upon will have an action potential (also called a nerve impulse).1 When an action potential occurs the nerve is said to fire, with fire, in this case, being somewhat akin to the completion of an electric circuit that occurs when a light switch is turned on. The result of neurons firing is that a message can be spread throughout the neural circuit. It is estimated that well over half of all synapses in the brain release glutamate, making it the dominant neurotransmitter used for neural circuit communication.

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

An even smaller sub-headline [H4]

Glutamate is also a metabolic precursor for another neurotransmitter called GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibitory neurotransmitters are essentially the flip-side of the coin—they decrease the likelihood that the neuron they act upon will fire.

References

  1. Purves D. Neuroscience. 5th edition. Sinauer Associates; 2011.

  2. Hassel B, Dingledine R. In: Brady ST, Siegel GJ, eds. Basic Neurochemistry. Elsevier; 2012: 342-366. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374947-5.00017-1.

  3. Zhou Y, Danbolt NC. J Neural Transm. 2014; 121(8):799-817. doi:10.1007/s00702-014-1180-8.

  4. Meldrum BS. J Nutr. 2000; 130(4):1007S-1015S. doi:10.1093/jn/130.4.1007S.

  5. Featherstone DE. ACS Chem Neurosci. 2010; 1(1):4-12. doi:10.1021/cn900006n.

  6. Tsien JZ. In: Basic Neurochemistry. Elsevier; 2012: 963-981. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-374947-5.00056-0.

  7. Morris RGM, et al. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 2003;358(1432):773-786. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1264.

  8. Wigström H, Gustafsson B. Acta Physiol Scand. 1985; 123(4):519-522. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1985.tb07621.x.

  9. Cooke SF. Brain. 2006; 129(7):1659-1673. doi:10.1093/brain/awl082.

  10. Carlson NR, Birkett MA. In: Physiology of Behavior. 12th edition. Pearson Education Limited; 2017.

  11. Volianskis A, et al. Brain Res. 2015; 1621:5-16. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.01.016.

  12. Hasselmo ME. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006; 16(6):710-715. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2006.09.002.

  13. Ge S, Dani JA. J Neurosci. 2005; 25(26):6084-6091. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0542-05.2005.

  14. Mark LP, et al. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001; 22(10):1813-1824.

  15. Mody I, MacDonald JF. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1995; 16(10):356-359.

  16. Wang Y, Qin Z. Apoptosis. 2010; 15(11):1382-1402. doi:10.1007/s10495-010-0481-0.

  17. Lipton SA. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006; 5(2):160-170. doi:10.1038/nrd1958.

Next up – Clinical Research

Click anywhere to discover
The Science